Category Archives: 315D M/W 11-12:15

Racial profiling still affects today’s society

                        

An analysis of 100 million police traffic stops has revealed that white people are more likely to be found with illegal items. Despite this fact black and Latino drivers are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police than white drivers.” The orange dots represents the percentage of black people who are being stopped by police unjustified.

There are many questions about racial profiling that still do not know the answer, such as, how does racial profiling in the past, affects the present? Are there cases of racial profiling today and what are they? Why colored, different religion, different ethnicity, has a certain impact in U.S. law enforcement?  Although the United States Law Enforcement agencies should be compromised to treat everyone equally, racial profiling still affects society every day, specially people of color. Judging someone just because they have a different color of skin happens every day and affects not only the victim, but it has a significant effect on the whole society, indeed, public safety. It is basically assuming some charges based on no real evidence.Racial profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race for committing an offense. Racial profiling is illegal, however, it still a social controversy, it violates the U.S. Constitution’s core that promises equality under the law for everyone. It occurs especially when an officer accuse people based on their race, ethnicity or religion without any proof of criminal offense. 

Racial profiling is ineffective as an strategy from the law enforcement agencies and an offense for the 14th amendment of the constitution which states that “All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.”  This is according to FindLaw for Legal Professionals. This amendment guarantees equal rights and equal protection under the law.

According to the same article “nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”People of color are more likely to face charges without any evidence than those who are considered actual “Americans”.This is something that affects specifically colored people, different religion, different ethnicity despite that the United States began an “post-racial era”.  According to the CNN news “The headlines pop up with alarming frequency: People of color going about their daily business — shopping, golfing, moving in — only to have the cops called on them.” 

Another evidence from CNN news states that “Researchers studied nearly 100 million traffic stops and found black motorists are more likely to be pulled over”. The question becomes, why uncolored people passed by and the representatives of law enforcement do not even care much? This is do to the fact that, according to them,  colored people are more likely to commit crime. According to History News Network “At the age of seven, Mary was profiled and taken to court by Augustine Washington Senior (George Washington’s father). At court, she was judged to be mulatto, sentenced to a thirty-year indenture, and was ordered to serve her indenture with Washington.”. “ Today, because of their appearance and ethnicity, citizens are being stopped, searched, and arrested.”. This demonstrates how racial profiling in the past has affected the present.  Despite significant advances in civil rights, the U.S. still deals with a lot of racial profiling. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2003, racial profiling became a turning point for the United States Government. They are committed to stop and interrogate with any evidence of  criminal activity. According to ACLU “In fact, the very inclusion of a national security exception in the guidelines is an admission by the Department of Justice that it relies upon racial and ethnic profiling in its domestic counter terrorism efforts” Which means, what they believe is, that the country will be more safe if they take more control of those who are considered more likely to commit crime. 

As you can see in the graph, black and Hispanic ethnicity are more likely to be stopped by the police and experience unnecessary use of force against them and it is a topic that still concerning the society today. 

There are annual statistics that show how people of color and Hispanic ethnicity are more likely to experience use of force from the police against them. According to the Prison Policy Initiative, black residents in New York City were 8 times more likely to be stopped by the police than white residents and 11 times more likely to be frisked. NBC News also claims that 64% of all Americans say that racism remains a major problem in our society. There exist many cases of racial profiling than were content of controversy in the United States such as the Jogger case and the Starbucks arrest case. This cases involved only black people. Police charged them for crimes that they did not committed for the fact that they were black.

Jogger case: This is the case of five black and Latino teens, Antron McCray, 15, Kevin Richardson, 15, Yusef Salaam, 15, Raymond Santana, 14, and Korey Wise, 16, who were quickly arrested by the police for the brutal assault of 28 years old white woman Trisha Meili without any evidence that they were the attackers. They were forcing them to say they were guilty, indeed, spent 15 years in jail being innocent. They did not get enough evidence to put them to jail just because they were at the crime scene and were black. The case generated a lot of concern in the whole society, some were targeting the five teens as animals, rapists, “wolf pack” and among other nicknames. Donald Trump also took place on this case saying that they deserve to be sentenced for death penalty. A Netflix series was filmed based on this case, according to ABC News “When They See Us,” which is directed by Ava DuVernay, is a dramatized account based on a 1989 case of injustice and racial discrimination in New York City when five teenagers — four of them black and one Latino — were wrongfully convicted in the attack and rape of a white woman jogging in Central Park.”

Starbucks arrest case: This case involves two African Americans men who were arrested in a Philadelphia Starbucks. Minutes after they arrive at the place the manager called the police when they refused to leave because they were waiting for their acquaintance. CNN says that the nation started complaining about the case claiming that it was racial profiling act.

In conclusion, racial profiling is illegal, is a matter that still exists throughout the United States, it is a real problem as you have seen and it needs to be addressed. 

“When they see us’ is a lesson in the Dangers of racial profiling”                           

                                                         Work Cited

  1. “Fourteenth Amendment – U.S. Constitution.” Findlaw, https://constitution.findlaw.com/amendment14.html.
  2. “Racial Profiling.” American Civil Liberties Union, https://www.aclu.org/issues/racial-justice/race-and-criminal-justice/racial-profiling.
  3. Yan, Holly. “This Is Why Everyday Racial Profiling Is so Dangerous.” CNN, Cable News Network, 11 May 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/05/11/us/everyday-racial-profiling-consequences-trnd/index.html.
  4. Willingham, A. J. (2019, March 21). Researchers studied nearly 100 million traffic stops and found black motorists are more likely to be pulled over. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2019/03/21/us/police-stops-race-stanford-study-trnd/index.html.
  5. Willingham, AJ. “Researchers Studied Nearly 100 Million Traffic Stops and Found Black Motorists Are More Likely to Be Pulled Over.” CNN, Cable News Network, 21 Mar. 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/03/21/us/police-stops-race-stanford-study-trnd/index.html.
  6. “Racial Profiling Since 9/11 Report.” American Civil Liberties Union, https://www.aclu.org/report/racial-profiling-911-report.
  7. Arenge, Andrew, et al. “Poll: 64 Percent of Americans Say Racism Remains a Major Problem.” NBCNews.com, NBCUniversal News Group, 30 May 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/poll-64-percent-americans-say-racism-remains-major-problem-n877536.
  8. History.com Editors. “The Central Park Five.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 14 May 2019, https://www.history.com/topics/1980s/central-park-five.
  9. ABC News, ABC News Network, https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/netflix-series-renews-outcry-donald-trumps-role-central/story?id=63607696.
  10. “Racial Profiling in Police Stops.” Maps Mania, http://googlemapsmania.blogspot.com/2019/03/racial-profiling-in-police-stops.html.

Yo Fuck Da Police!: New York City Crime Rate

This New York City map was currently screen shot through a app called ” The Citizen App”, this app is constantly informing you of the current crimes being committed around your area. It varies in color yellow indicates misdemeanor while red indicates either a shooting or a homicide.

 

Thesis statement: New York police department in the 1990’s had a vast impact in the rapidly decrease in crime till this day, but skeptics argue other reasons for the decrease in crime and not due to the involvement of NYPD.

The New York Police Department CompStat gives important statistics on the crime rate in the 1990 till 2019. It shows how rapidly the crime rate in N.Y.C had dropped, in 2019 our crime rate is at its lowest in a total of 83,448 compared to the crime rate in the 90’s that were 527,257 that is a total of 83 percent dropped rate, we are current at NYC lowest of all time. This CompStat will help back my argument on how NYPD had a vast impact on the decrease in crime rate till today due to the rapped arrest rate New York police department had conducted in the early 1990s. Many may not agree with the tactics or reasons why officers may arrest an individual, but because of those arrest our society crime rate has dropped as low as it did. Upholding the law and holding those accountable have made our city safer.

 

In the article What Reduced Crime in New York city hit major key points to my thesis. Author David R. Francis gives important details/date and accurate percentage on how high the crime rates in New York city around the early 90’s were. Francis goes on a explains the policies known as the “ get- tough” that were carried out by former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s. Giuliani’s policies on lower-level crime also known as the broken window being an arrestable offense had a great impact on crime reduction. “Felony arrest rates (except for motor vehicle thefts) rose 50+70 percent in the 1990s. When arrests of burglars increased 10 percent, the number of burglaries full 2.7 to 3.2 percent. When the arrest rate of robbers rose 10 percent, the number of robberies full 5.7 to 5.9 percent”(Francis p1). This quote shows how affected these new policies are by raising the amount of arrests a officers must make in order to reduce that certain crime being conducted. The rise of arrests have scared those individuals who were going to commit the crime to stop in order not to be caught or due time for that specific crime, this scared tacked worked so well that the percentage of crimes being conducted drop to half that percentage then what previously were. Frances also brings in the skeptical point of view of their thoughts on crime rate in NYC has decreased drastically they believed it was the economic boom to be blamed for the dropping of the crime rate. The unemployment rate declining 25% drove the criminals in New York city to stay in the straight and narrow. This article gives me vast important information that will help me backup my thesis and also add on to what others believe why the crime rate has dropped to half the percentage then what it previously was.

 

The topic of my map will give New Yorkers visual information on how the crime rate in New York City has dropped drastically since the early 90’s, what new policies were created and enforce in order to continue seeing this immoderate drop of crime in a city that was once known to be the worst high crime rated city in the United states. When it comes to the topic involving NYPD most of us will readily agree upon the injustice system of corrupt cops and the unfair treatment of certain ethical groups. Others may argue that New York City needs to better there laws toward protecting our officer during the line of duty, while criminologists believe that due to the low social strata comes high crime rate. In my own view, yes, I agree that there are individual police officers who are unjust while conducting their job when there are better ways to have dealt with certain situations, but on the other hand I don’t believe that the unethical conduct of individual police officers should be frown upon the entire New York police department or for other officers who had nothing to due with the misconduct/mistakes for that specific incident shouldn’t receive the black lash for the mistakes of others. This matter of hate/love from the people of New York City towards the NYPD needs to change. If New Yorkers continues to disrespect NYPD officers and continue violently protesting against them instead of finding a more civil way to handle things on both ends then the decrease in officers will start to occur more rapidly. If that occurs then with the decrease in officers will come the increase in crime. NYPD needs to find a better solution in keeping the corrupt officers on check before there fellow officers are crucified / label for a crime they didn’t commit. The suicide rate for officers is already an issue for the NYPD and the rate for suicide in there department is only growing. Although NYPD may not be a fan favorite at the moment for the people of New York city, one major fact that can not be denied or argued is that even though they are not liked, New Yorkers know that they are in fact needed in order to continue keeping the rate of crime at is lowest.

In the 1990s New York city was rated one of the highest crime rated cities in the United states. From homicide, robbery , grand larceny, federal assault, rape and GLA. According to the New York city police department statistics for homicide around the 90’ was “2,262 , GLA 146,925, Rape 3,126 ,Robbery 100,280,and Gr.Larceny 146,925( NYPD CompStat Unit pg.1)”. Mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s set a “get tough ( Giuliani page.1)” policy that led NYPD to arrest criminals even though it was just a misdemeanor, the more arrest officers conducted the lower the crime on those specific crimes declined. NYPD rapped arrest rate during the 1990s did a vast impact for our society crime rate today, in 2019 our crime rate is at its lowest in a total of 83,448 compared to the crime rate in the 90’s that were 527,257 that is more than 83% drop in crime rate. Many may not agree with the tactics or reasons why officers may arrest an individual, but because of those arrest our society crime rate has dropped as low as it did. Upholding the law and holding those accountable have made our city safer. Who’s to say if that policy wasn’t inputted what the crime rate would had been today, just imagined constantly being on high alert not knowing if today the day we might die , get robbed, or even worst one of our love ones got raped and killed over $20. If there’s no officers to enforce the laws towards those individuals, then those individuals who have nothing to fear but to continue conducting crimes. A great example would be, as a child you are taught to respect your parents and obey their rules, if broken you were to suffer the consequences. You as a child rather follow their rules then to receive punishment, your parents enforcing those rules upon you made you the person your are today. That was your parents way of making sure you conducted yourself in a civil matter while respecting the law . Laws are enforced in order to keep us safe you may not agree on why there are enforced but the individual enforcing them risking their lives day by day are the reason why we don’t worry as much as individuals did in the 90’s, we are more in a calmer state of mind when traveling in the city then those individuals in the 1990s constantly looking over there should hoping not to be the next victim in a violent society.

Although NYPD is label as untrustworthy corrupted justice system of racial profiling a majority of the people who join the NYPD were born and raised within our community trying to make a change. The department as a whole shouldn’t be backlash for individual cop who made mistakes, us as a community are hypocrites. We fight for justice equal treatment and racial profiling. While New Yorkers are constantly disrespecting the NYPD hollering “ fuck the police!” teaching the generation before us that it’s okay to throw a bucket of water to officers while in the line of duty, with no re-precaution allowing them to continue this trend while taping it making it go viral. Without the knowledge on the amounts of damage they just caused. Any firearm that has contact with water can cause rust, which comes with jamming of the firing pinning in a Glock and may cause the officer his/her life. Everyone hates being labeled for the mistakes of certain individuals in our ethical group ,but we are no different doing it to police officers who are actually doing there job with good intentions. Who may had saved many lives while risking their own . We need to look into the facts before we start to protest for a murder or criminal just because we didn’t like the outcome of the aftermath actions. Yes! We demand respect and punishment to corrupt cops, we are going by it the wrong way taking our angry towards the ones who are trying to help us and keep us safe. Unjust treat in our country have changed but the reason for there change wasn’t because they act violently or harassed others. It changed because they went by things more civil peaceful protests, Dr. Martin Luther king and Rosa parks were arrested but not one of them fought back but left calmly till things were resolved then they were released. They are the reason why we as minorities today get to enjoy the enjoyment of what we considered back then white privilege.

New York city as a community and the New York police department should find a better method towards working together and trying to rebuild trust between each other in order to better the community, to show the community that they are there to protect and serve not to cause harm. That NYPD shouldn’t be the ones you should be afraid of that there is a still trust within the community to help NYPD when they need to get clearer statement on what just occurred instead of the law of the “don’t snitch” policy New Yorkers have deemed to be the unbreakable rule resulting inconsequential harm towards the witnesses/victims. If we don’t change our views as a community and if the NYPD continues not to get rid of the corrupt officers then how do both ends except the crime to continue dropping and animosity on both sides to end. We as a community need to show/ teach our youth to respect our officer as well as the police department re-giving course on costume/ courtesy and how to properly handle certain situations. I know many might not agree with arresting criminals what some might call small and unlawful arrest but statistic show “Felony arrest rates (except for motor vehicle thefts) rose 50+70 percent in the 1990s. When arrests of burglars increased 10 percent, the number of burglaries fell 2.7 to 3.2 percent. When the arrest rate of robbers rose 10 percent, the number of robberies fell 5.7 to 5.9 percent (Frances pg.1)”. This quote shows how affected these new policies are by raising the amount of arrests a officers must make in order to reduce that certain crime being conducted. The rise of arrests have scared those individuals who were going to commit the crime to stop in order not to be caught or due time for that specific crime, this scared tacked worked so well that the percentage of crimes being conducted drop to half that percentage then what previously were.

Many argued that the reason for the rapid decrease in crime was caused due to the increase in employment that many went to the straight and narrow in order to be employed. Many skeptics argue “The national unemployment rate declined 25 percent between 1990 and 1999, and by 39 percent in the city between 1992 and 1999. This study shows that a single percentage point decline in the jobless rate decreases burglary by 2.2 percent and motor vehicle theft by 1.8 percent. Increases in the real minimum wage also significantly reduce robberies and murders: 3.4 to 3.7 percent fewer robberies with a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage and 6.3 to 6.9 percent fewer murders (Francis pg.1)”. The increase in employment and minimum wages encouraged criminals to stop committing crimes to keep their record clean in order to be employed. Due to the rise of employment the decrease in crime came from 1992 to 1999. They argued that it wasn’t the increased in arrests that scared the criminals to not commit the crimes, but the hope of being employed is what changed there course of action. I respectfully disagree with this theory because as statistics shows in the police department diagram how due to the high arrest rate and the drugs/ guns being taken off the streets NYC has crime has drop. When 9/11 occurred and the employment rate was once again at its lowest the crime rate in the city still remained low. It shows that it wasn’t due to the employment rate for the decrease in crime it was due to the officer enforcing the law and keeping criminals off the streets. I served 4 years in a half in the United States Marine Corp and I heard many stories from my fellow brothers/sisters who served in Vietnam once coming back home from serving their country, keeping our enemies from invading our home, they came back to being spit at and protested being called “baby killer ! Murder!”. It was a horrible era being a service member serving their country with good intentions of keeping what we call home safe, they risked their lives every day being away from there families knowing the risk of never coming home. So when I see officers who are serving the state being disrespected in a way that my brothers in arms were, brings rage and disappointment. Those who protest and disrespect us who risk our lives day in and day out , not knowing the sacrifices we make each day to keep them safe. They never served a day in there life being young as 17 preparing your will making sure everything on check, so when the day comes that you don’t return home your priorities had been handle and your family grieving for your lost can just grieve without the worry of your barrel options, because it’s been handled. As a veteran I know what officers go through day in and day out the mentally one must have just to get by each day and those are the reasons why I know being an officer in New York city is very difficult and that reason is why I respect and mentally knowingly know how they feel while they serve their country.

 

Work Cite

NYPD CompStat Unit, “Police Department City of New York “,Report covering the week 10/28/2019 through 11/03/2019. Volume 26 Number 47,2019, https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/nypd/downloads/pdf/crime_statistics/cs-en-us-city.pdf, November 03,2019.

Francis, David R., “What Reduced Crime Rate in New York city”, the NATIONAL BUREAU of ECONOMIC RESEARCH, January03,2019, https://www.nber.org/digest/jan03/w9061.html, October 05,2019.

Francis, David R., “What Reduced Crime Rate in New York city”, the NATIONAL BUREAU of ECONOMIC RESEARCH, January03,2019, https://www.nber.org/digest/jan03/w9061.html, October 05,2019.

NYPD CompStat Unit, “Police Department City of New York “,CompStat, 2019, https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/nypd/downloads/pdf/crime_statistics/cs-en-us-city.pdf, October 25,2019.

https://www.bing.com/images/search?view=detailV2&id=572457387035A8F7F42DCD811EB5C783B5FC6C2C&thid=OIP.-vCMxzOIkXV0fGLirrHmdgHaIZ&mediaurl=https%3A%2F%2Fpics.me.me%2Fsay-hello-to-your-new-fbi-director-no-in-dwight-20372903.png&exph=567&expw=500&q=+meme+on+dewitt+as+a+cop+the+office&selectedindex=3&ajaxhist=0&vt=0&eim=0,1,2,3,4,6,8,10

Album: Straight Outta Compton, Artist: N.W.A, Release year: 1988, Duration: 5:46, Genre: Hip hop music

 

 

 

ASTHMA: Unhealthy Air

Asthma is a common lung disorder in which inflammation cause the bronchi to swell and narrow the airways. It causes breathing difficulties that may range from mid to life-threating. Some of the symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Asthma can be treated with a  inhalers or a nebulizer machine. Although some people might say asthma can be genetic but it also shows that air pollution play a big part, air pollution triggers your asthma symptoms especially if you live in the city. Therefore by checking the air quality it will help to show where is the highest rate of air pollution.

It’s a proving fact that asthma can be inherited if both parent have it or maybe a close relative. Jenna Fletcher argue that genetic plays a big part whether or not a person develop the condition. In making this comment, according to a 2014 review study, genetic factors account for around 70 percent of a person’s risk of developing asthma”.( Fletcher.“ Does asthma run in the family?”. Medicalnewstoday.com, 14 February 2019) I agree with her research study because when I was younger I had asthma, my nephew who is 7 years old haves asthma too and according to my mom it ruins in her side of the family because also her mother develop asthma. Besides asthma being genetic, pollution can trigger your asthma.

When you live in a big city you might not notice but because there’s a lot of factories and cars that can make the air unhealthy. It can totally affect your health or if you a person with asthma it can trigger it. The medical review claim ozone, a gas, is one of the most common air pollutants. Medical review point is “ ozone contributes to what we typically experience as “smog” or haze.it is most common in cities where there are more cars”(Medical review.” Air Pollution “. aafa.org, October2015 )  This explain cars can effect the air but also factories anything that is experience as a smog. The medical review writes “ small particles in the air can pass through your nose or mouth and get into your lungs. Airborne particles, found in haze, smoke and airborne dust”( Medical review.” Air Pollution “.aafa.org, October2015) This shows people with asthma are at great risk from inhaling the small particles. As a result by reporting the air quality will help you know when it might trigger an asthma episode.

Air pollution remains as an environmental health threat to all New Yorkers. The reason for it because we have a lot of factories and cars, trucks & so on goes the list. According to an article I found it says we experience poor air quality due to a high level of particles. In the article it state, “exposure to PM2.5 can worsen serious health problem, including heart and lung diseases.” (1.nyc.gov) This statement agrees to my whole essay because as I said before a particles goes in your body it trigger your asthma causing breathing difficulty in your lungs. “During the summer, warm weather and strong sunshine can lead to high levels of ground-level ozone”, claims the article. (1.nyc.gov) This is a smog that can trigger coughing and throat irritation. Therefore if you or maybe anybody you know will like to limit exposures to air pollution, there a lot of media such as the news, the website air now or even sign up for alerts from notify NYC which provide daily update of the air quality.

Some people might think that maybe air pollution doesn’t trigger your asthma but they wrong because there is many proven fact that it play an important part towards your health. Also in my map shows the different air quality index level and it explain it self where the air is good or when is really bad which is the orange/red parts on the map.In the map it shows that in the night the air quality is most likely to be low because unlike the morning not so many people driving around or working. For example I notice around hunts point there is nothing but a lot of factories, a lot truck passing by to get to these factories you can notice the smog. As a result you can just imagine how unhealthy the air can be.

 

 

Sources

  1. “Does Asthma Run in The Family?” medicalnewstoday.com
  2. “Air Pollution” aafa.org
  3. 1.nyc.gov
  4. https://www.6sqft.com/maps-reveal-which-nyc-neighborhoods-have-the-highest-levels-of-air-pollution-day-versus-night/
  5. https://bazallergy.com/understand-the-basics-of-the-air-quality-index/
  6. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/air-pollution-everything-you-need-know

 

 

 

 

 

 

Middle/lower income residents: Housing crisis in New York

Ousmane Diallo

ENG 110-315D

 

 

New York City is facing an affordable housing crisis. Affordable housing is defined as housing that costs no more than 30 percent of your family income. Research shows that more than 11 million Americans spend more than half of their paycheck on rent. The middle and lower classes are having a problem with one of the indispensable things in people’s lives because a place to live is a necessity in human life. There are plans to build affordable housing for New Yorkers; however, those plans are not helping to decrease the homelessness or the struggle the middle and lower income family are facing. so I will be mapping the construction of new buildings in New York City, which can not be described as affordable for middle and lower income family. The impact of  the housing crisis depends on income. On one hand, the upper class does not seem to be affected. on the other hand, the middle and lower classes are struggling due to the impact and crisis of affordable housing in New York. It’s evident that  lower and middle are more concerned about the housing crisis because  they are living the reality of the problem . Although, there is lots of new construction of housing in New York City, the middle and lower classes are struggling with the housing crisis. So affordable housing need to be created more in order to accommodate middle and lower class residents.

New residents buildings construction is in process in New York City; however, many of them are not affordable  for middle and lower family income. In the government websites page Housing New York: A Five-Borough, Ten Year Plan by alicia Glen, Deputy Mayor for housing, the City of New York Mayor Bill de Blasio claim “we are laying out a comprehensive plan to build and preserve 200,000 affordable units over the coming decade to support New Yorkers  with a range of incomes, from the very lowest to those in the middle class” (page 3). In other words, there are plans for affordable housing in New York City for middle and lower family income. Yet these plan have been in New York and housing crisis did not recently. It’s been years since Mayor Bill de Blasio put forth his housing New York (HNY) plan with the goal of creating affordable housing but the reality proves the city continues to face record high levels of homelessness and an affordability crisis. After all those constructions, still middle and lower classes residents are struggling for housing. The plan exist but seem just not being working.

The struggle of the  affordable housing crisis impact the middle and lower classes in New York. In the website curbed.com, the affordable housing crisis explained by Patrick Sisson on May 15,2019 “Nearly two-thirds of renters Nationwide say they can not afford to buy a home, and saving for that down payment is not going to be easier anytime soon because home prices are rising  at twice the rate of wage growth”. In other words, the middle and lower classes can not buy a home for themselves and if all they are making are resumed to monthly bill how will they save enough to buy one? Therefore, the struggling will continue in the coming years. Evidence shows that the middle and lower family income spend more then half  of their monthly payment on rent. Consequently, high housing costs leave low in come family with little left over for other important expenses. like food, children’s education , health, transportation, closings beside housing these are list of things that may indispensable this situation seems to increase on every aspect because the population is growing and rent are getting higher. Here you will information about housing crisis struggle in New York. https://www.curbed.com/2019/5/15/18617763/affordable-housing-policy-rent-real-estate-apartment

Finding solution for housing crisis in New York City should be priorities because the homelessness, the number of people in municipal shelters each night, affordable housing crisis are increasing. the ignorance for reality of the city’s housing problem leaves a lot of poorest New Yorkers to go whether in shelters or the streets. In addition, the middle and lower income struggle for affordable  housing. in the website coalitionforthehomeless.org an article by Gisell Routhies says “Instead of using his housing New York 2.0 plan to build homes for homeless family and individual, he has chosen to squander valuable city resources on the kind high rent apartments that the city is already awes in”. In other word, New York 2.0 plan are building as promised but those building are not at reach of lower and middle classes. the plan could work if they build new limited equity co-op housing , where low or middle income can afford the rent or even buy house. Every New Yorkers deserves a safe and affordable place to live. The market alone is not always able to meet that need, so the government at all levels must work together to help.

Although, many would question whether the affordable housing crisis will impact the whole society of New York or only the family that are concerned. In ” The Next Environmental Revolution by Sarah Williams Goldhogen, she argue that the place we spend 90 percent of our time. like our houses, work places, schools  have a big influence or impact in our socio-life, feeling, emotion, even our health. so no wonder why 85% of homeless people have mental health problem. the struggle for affordable housing  crisis can lead to depression because you have no ideal when you are going to be homeless. The population are growing imagine the crisis in the coming years.

 

Works cited

Glen, Alicia. A Five-Borough, Ten-years plan housing in New York. www.nyc.com http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/housing/downloads/pdf/housing_plan.pdf

Sisson, Patrick. Affordable housing crisis explained.https://www.curbed.com/2019/5/15/18617763/affordable-housing-policy-rent-real-estate-apartment

Housing New York: A Five-Borough, Ten-Year Plan

Shabaj Hussain

English 110

October 19, 2019

 

                   City Of Production: Industrial Factories Good or Dad for Modern Day Society

Over the course of time people build buildings and infrastructure that is necessary in our lives. Most of these constructions can have a negative effect toward the environment. Air pollution caused by industrial factories can impact everything around us. When it comes to the topic of air pollution, most people may argue that industrial factories aren’t the only cause of air pollution, in which they are correct, however to eliminate the problem as quickly we must look to what is closest to us. Ultimately, what is at stake here is the increase in the health risk since it will affect everyone around it. It has been proven that air pollution can damage the ozone layer which creates smog a fog like air pollution that is extremely harmful to a human’s body. Although industrial factories is a necessary factor for our modern lifestyle, the risks they pose such as lung disease, asthma rates, and skin problems demand that we need to find a solution. Therefore what we do in the matter will decide how we live in our society.

 

In modern lifestyle industrial factories is a necessary part of our society. In the article “just how important is manufacturing” by Willy C. Shih, the author introduces his work by stating that manufacturing is important for economic future. Shih speaks about visiting hundreds of factories that produce a million notebook computers a week, microchip engine controllers for 40% of the world’s cars. He points out that “most Americans believe factory work is mechanical, snapping together plastic parts or assembling electronic devices”. Shih explains that many of the jobs in manufacturing are enormous amount of sophisticated knowledge work. Shih ends by saying that if “a country loses the ability or the capacity to manufacture, its innovation space will be truncated”. In the article, “just how important is manufacturing”, Shih mentions that “They include ones that produce a million notebook computers a week,… microchip engine controllers for 40% of the world’s cars, key components for iPhones, commercial jet engines, scientific instruments, heavy construction equipment, tools for making semiconductors, and solar panels.” Shih’s point is that manufacturing factories are very essential in the modern world. It manufactures almost everything we use from the smallest such as cellphones to the biggest vehicle. The factories are what is helping us to make new discoveries and is the future of the changing environment. In other words, factories have the potential to shape our future toward more environmentally friendly. Furthermore the usage of these factories will ultimately decide the impact it has on our planet either good or bad.

https://hbr.org/2012/02/just-how-important-is-manufact

 

Air pollution caused by industrial factories are a major problem in our society. It can affect everyone and everything around it. There are many risks such as lung disease, asthma rates, and skin problems. The article “NYC is among smoggiest city in Nation, report says” by Adam Nichols, the author talks about New York being ranked tenth worst in the country for smog levels. He also mentions that the “increase in unhealthy air is eye-opening, and points to the reality that the nation must do more to protect the public from serious, even life-threatening harm.” Nichols points out that “Nationwide, more than 141 million people lived in areas last year with unsafe levels of the two, the report found. That’s an increase of more than 7 million from 2017.” Nichols explains that researchers with the Lung Association measured particle pollution in short and long term intervals. Short-term refers to daily spikes that can prove deadly, while long-term is yearly average. According to the article, “NYC is among smoggiest city in nation, report says,” Nichols mentions that “Ozone pollution, often called smog, is unhealthy and essentially leaves a sunburn on the lungs, the report said. Breathing in ozone can leave people suffering from shortness of breath and cause bouts of coughing, asthma attacks and even early death.” This evidence shows that it is very unhealthy for many people living in environments that 

are polluted. We all want to live in an environment that is safe for us and our children but it is difficult to achieve when there is ozone pollution. It is dangerous for people with health issues to stay in areas where the air is not clean. This image shows us the smog fog in Manhattan. The picture may not show much but the smog exists and it is very dangerous for people. Many people come and go in New York City, many tourists come to see Manhattan one of the most popular boroughs, and to think that it is contaminated with pollution is very alarming. Consequently It is in our hands to decide if we want to risk living in polluted area or to make a change to the community.

https://patch.com/new-york/new-york-city/nyc-among-smoggiest-cities-nation-report-says

 

Industrial factories produce too much air pollution that demands us to find the solution to the problem. The article “How to cure smoke pollution from factories”by Doug Johnson, the author speaks about the existential threat of smog from factories that has on both the environment and human health. He points out that “different governments around the world have mandated actions to reduce the level of toxic emissions from industrial processes, such as reducing the amount of harmful chemicals used in these processes, and utilizing technologies to capture them before the chemicals enter Earth’s atmosphere.” Johnson explains that different industries around the world use different materials and chemicals to make their product. He also points out that “In 2014, the United States’ coal power industry released 41.2 tons of lead, 9,332 pounds of cadmium, 576,185 tons of carbon monoxide and 77,108 pounds of arsenic into the air.” With this action came many risks for humans such as cancer, heart disease and bronchitis. Johnson states that the efforts to reduce industrial air pollution involves encouraging or enforcing renewable and clean sources of energy rather than coal and fossil fuels. Around 85 percent of United State’s energy comes from fossil fuels rather than renewable resources like solar or wind energy. Johnson remind us that While new technologies allow these plants to use less-harmful materials, it could be challenging to use environmentally friendly resources considering it is easier to use their harmful counterparts that have a long history of industrial use. According to the article “How to cure smoke pollution from factories” it states, “Part of government efforts to reduce industrial air pollution involves encouraging or enforcing renewable and clean sources of energy rather than coal and fossil fuels.” Johnson’s point is that it would be preferable to replace fossil fuel with clean and renewable energy. With this idea we can decrease effect air pollution on us and our environment. When chemicals goes into the air, it not only affects us but everything around us as well. For instance, air pollution can damage the ozone layer which can create smog a fog that is bad for our health. Air pollution can cause acid rain and make fish poisonous to humans. In New York City, Manhattan one of the five boroughs is full of life which was a victim of smog. It should be our priority to keep it clean of air pollution. Furthermore the less bad chemicals we have in the air, the better it is for our health and the community.

https://sciencing.com/cure-smoke-pollution-factories-23979.html

Of course, many will probably believe that industrial factories are not the main cause of air pollution. While it is true that industrial factories aren’t the only factor to consider when it comes to air pollution.

This diagram shows us that factories are not the only cause of air pollution. As a matter of fact industrial factories are a major cause of air pollution. With our ever changing world it demands us to make new and replace the old leading to more usage of industrial factories to create more and more to keep up the change. My research was to show the impact of industrial factories in our city. No one should have to be in constant fear being at risk of having cancer, lung disease, asthma, or heart disease. People who live in areas with high poverty rate are in higher health risk. While industrial factories has its downsides, it is the one that keeps our economy rolling. It provides us with the necessary resources we need for our daily life. With the help of industrial factories making new discoveries were made possible. For instance, factories that made rocketship parts which allowed us to go to the moon and tools that helped scientists make new medicine. Back when I was living in my country the air quality wasn’t great. A lot of the street were filled smoke because many of the vehicles let out bad smoke. When I came to America, I thought everything was better, the air looked clean and the environment looked much better than where I came from. As the years passed, living in New York City I began to notice many of the areas didn’t have clean air. While touring Manhattan I would notice that black smoke would come out building’s rooftop. I would always thought to myself why would no one change that. Consequently it is up to make a change in our society if we and our children want to live a healthy life.

Jedidiah Lopez
Professor Michael
Eng 110
11-15-19

The topic for my map that I will be doing is about homelessness in the Bronx. The reason why I wanted to do this is not only because I live in the Bronx but every time I come home from work I would always see and notice homeless people laying down on the street asking for money. I would always think of how they got in that position, was it lack of not paying for bills?/health problems?/ or maybe some other personal problems. I remember one time I was discussing this with one of my friends and he said that being homeless was a choice this spoke for me to explore the reasons/circumstances that lead to homelessness in the Bronx. When it comes to the topic of homeless, most of us will readily agree that seeing people living in poverty is sad we feel pity for them. When this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of it being a concern for society. Whereas some are convinced that homelessness is a product and it results from circumstances beyond an individual’s control. Society needs to acknowledge that they are the only ones that can help the homeless which is why this is being presented to you. The bronx has up to 1.3 million people living in it and half of that, 50% are homeless and/or struggling to keep up with the bills. This issue is to the people specifically in my borough because I live here and I know I can relate because we see homelessness at least once a day, whether it is on the bus, train or even on the street. Although homelessness is a major issue because some people think it is a choice but reality along with data and facts says it’s due to some factors such as mental health, personal problems or being in debt. Consequently, this should be a concern but I want people to see the viewpoint that being homeless is not a choice and figure out why and to try to prevent it. An example of how homelessness live on a day to day basis is shown: (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHDkALRz5Rk)
Nowadays in society the topic of homelessness is not a major concern because people do not seem to notice and automatically assume it is a choice rather looking at the factors that can cause it such as being in debt or mental problems. According to the article “Changes in daily substance use among people experiencing homelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomes following randomization to Housing First or usual care” it talks about some factors that affect people to the point so much that it brings them down and eventually they are homeless. In Julian M. Somers, Akm Moniruzzaman & Anita Palepu views they state, “Substance-related disorders are the most common psychiatric conditions among people who are homeless, and are associated with elevated risk for chronic homelessness, infectious diseases and mortality.” This is what happens to people when they become homeless, they get diseases, disorders due to the fact that they are homeless. Once people end up being homeless it can have a devastating effect on them. For instance another article called “ Mastery matters: consumer choice, psychiatric symptoms and problematic substance use among adults with histories of homelessness” talks about the problems of the homeless, what to do to survive and I can’t help to think after reading this that people still think being homeless is a choice, they are struggling with society as is and are trying to get out of the hole. The author Ronni Michelle Greenwood states “Indeed, individuals with histories of homelessness do have higher rates of trauma, victimization (e.g. Goodman et al. 1991, Stewart et al. 2004) and physical illness (Hwang 2001) than the general population.” This means that homelessness can affect the person even after they get out of being homeless which can have an impact for them during their lifetime. The way homeless starts can be troubling. For instance the article “Why Are People Homeless?” mentions, “ERODING WORK OPPORTUNITIES Reasons why homelessness persists include stagnant or falling incomes and less secure jobs which offer fewer benefits. Low-wage workers have been particularly have been left behind as the disparity between rich and poor has mushroomed.” This is just one of the ways people get fired and then become homeless, it is not their choice to b e fired.

People need to reconsider the options and think about the topic: Homelessness and need to understand that it is a major issue in today’s society and see that it is not a choice, here are just some ways people do not choose to be homeless. Another way people become homeless the article explains is housing. When the apartments go up it cause people to move out therefore hard to just move out of the home so unexpectedly.  However, many mentally ill homeless people are unable to obtain access to supportive housing and/or other treatment services. The mental health support services most needed include case management, housing, and treatment. it shows the data that was collected from previous year. To start off, the article “ Why are people homeless?” says “A lack of affordable housing and the limited scale of housing assistance programs have contributed to the current housing crisis and to homelessness. According to HUD, in recent years the shortages of affordable housing are most severe for units affordable to renters with extremely low incomes. Federal support for low-income housing has fallen 49% from 1980 to 2003 (National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2005). About 200,000 rental housing units are destroyed annually. Renting is one of the most viable options for low income people (Joint Center for Housing Studies).” Housing can cause a major issue due to the fact there is a limit to the housing assisting programs and on top of this the rental housing units get taken out per year. Another way people can become homeless is mental illness. Mental illness is “any disease of the mind, psychological ones”. They can control how you act and why you act like that. The article “Why are people homeless?.” gives more insight. There it says: “Despite the disproportionate number of severely mentally ill people among the homeless population, increases in homelessness are not attributable to the release of severely mentally ill people from institutions. However, many mentally ill homeless people are unable to obtain access to supportive housing and/or other treatment services. The mental health support services most needed include case management, housing, and treatment.”. It is not the people’s fault that they have mental illness rather they need help instead of society pushing them away. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOraK2E58vo) Homelessness can not be a choice and is not a choice. The last two factors that can contribute to homelessness is the lack to afford healthcare and being in a domestic violence with someone. Not being able to have healthcare can lead to major problems such as developing illness therefore not being able to work and thus not being able to pay the rent. With domestic violence when women get into this once they get kicked out it is hard to get back on your feet. In the article “Why are people homeless.?” it states “Lack of Affordable Health Care: For families and individuals struggling to pay the rent, a serious illness or disability can start a downward spiral into homelessness, beginning with a lost job, depletion of savings to pay for care, and eventual eviction. One in three Americans, or 86.7 million people, is uninsured. Of those uninsured, 30.7% are under eighteen. In 2007-2008, four out of five people that were uninsured were working families. Work-based health insurance has become rarer in recent years, especially for workers in the agricultural or service sectors (Families USA, 2009). Domestic Violence: Battered women who live in poverty are often forced to choose between abusive relationships and homelessness. In addition, 50% of the cities surveyed by the U.S. Conference of Mayors identified domestic violence as a primary cause of homelessness (U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2005).Approximately 63% of homeless women have experienced domestic violence in their adult lives (Network to End Domestic Violence).” This is the data to show how homelessness can occur and it is not by choice. (https://www.coalitionforthehomeless.org/basic-facts-about-homelessness-new-)
Research has shown that homelessness is caused not by only one factor but by multiple and none of those factors are a choice, rather they just happen not by the people choosing it. This can impact society as is and we need people to see the other perspectives and points of view that this is not chosen for them. The homeless may affect the community which therefore can have a lasting impact on how society runs. There are many myths and assumptions that homeless just “choose” to be homeless but the truth and data shows it is not the truth. I hope this brought a greater understanding and opened a new light for you. (www.understandhomelessness.com)

 

Mental Illness Final Research Paper

Tiana Vanriel

English 110

Section 315D

 

I will be mapping facilities around New York which focus mainly on treating students and citizens who suffer with mental illnesses. I will also include data of the percentage of individuals struggling with these illnesses in NY. This will help to spread awareness on how much of a factor these illnesses can have in one’s life. Furthermore, they can make school significantly harder, or even interfere with daily life. Although invisible disabilities are often overlooked, they have the capacity to impact the success of students, and citizens, therefore there should be more facilities which focus on these disabilities, and schools should incorporate counseling. Overall, mental illnesses must be treated accordingly to ensure that every student has the same opportunities available.

There are various forms of mental illnesses, which all have different symptoms, many of which are not observable. For example, depression results in having episodes of sadness with each episode being more severe than the last. Bipolar Disorder is a form of mental illness which is associated with episodes of mood swings from depressive lows to manic highs. So basically, these both have the capacity to change someone’s mood uncontrollably. As severe as these illnesses seem, they are often overlooked as they are “invisible disabilities” which are not seen by outsiders. The article “Study Says One In 5 New Yorkers Suffer from Depression, Mental Illness” by Rebecca Fishbein, which focuses on the effects of mental illness specifically in New Yorkers. For instance, Fisbein explains “ depression was most prevalent among New Yorkers, with eight percent of the population suffering from major depressive disorder.” Notably, depression is prominent in New Yorkers, which is shown by the high percentage. Nonetheless, based on this data it is obvious that mental illnesses can affect more than just students, as it is common in all citizens.

Students with conditions that hinder their learning abilities often go unnoticed, which is why facilities need to be prepared to give these kids the proper education they deserve. The article “How The Loss Of U.S. Psychiatric Hospitals Led To A Mental Health Crisisby Samantha Raphelson describes the lack of psychiatric hospitals to treat mental illnesses. Raphelson explains that “The disappearance of long-term-care facilities and psychiatric beds has escalated over the past decade” Moreover, there are not enough facilities meant to treat these illnesses, as the number of hospitals is continuing to decrease over the years. Overall, there must be more attention brought upon how important the implementation of these hospitals are to students and citizens. 

The citizens who are affected by these forms of mental illnesses often act out in their daily life, hindering their ability to perform well at work, or even complicating progress in the school system. This can also result in a change of living condition, for example being treated as if they are a danger to society or themselves. With use once again of the article “How The Loss Of U.S. Psychiatric Hospitals Led To A Mental Health Crisis”, this also focuses on the how severe mental illnesses can become and how people must be treated accordingly. Specifically, “Many times individuals who really do require intensive psychiatric care find themselves homeless or more and more in prison.” Evidently, citizens who are in need of intense psychiatric care are often tossed to the side, or are being sent to correctional facilities, which inhibits the ability for individuals to carry on with their daily lives. Although mental illnesses may be invisible, they should be taken care of just like any other illness.

Despite how useful creating new psychiatric hospitals can be, this implementation and maintenance is very costly. The article “The Highest Health Care Cost In America? Mental Disorders.” by Lindsay Holmes focuses on the expense of health care as a whole. Specifically, Holmes discusses “Heart conditions were the second costliest condition, falling far behind mental disorders at $147 billion.” Moreover, the treatment of heart issues along with mental disorders are equaling an overwhelming expense.

 

Work Cited

Raphelson, Samantha. “How The Loss Of U.S. Psychiatric Hospitals Led To A Mental Health Crisis.” NPR, NPR, 30 Nov. 2017, www.npr.org/2017/11/30/567477160/how-the-loss-of-u-s-psychiatric-hospitals-led-to-a-mental-health-crisis.

Chatel, Amanda. “What I Wish I Knew About The Cost Of Mental Health Care Before Being Hospitalized.” Bustle, 7 Jan. 2018, www.bustle.com/p/the-cost-of-mental-health-hospitalization-is-part-of-what-makes-mental-health-care-inaccessible-15919218.

Fishbein, Rebecca. “Study Says One In 5 New Yorkers Suffer From Depression, Mental Illness.” Gothamist, Gothamist, 13 Nov. 2015, gothamist.com/news/study-says-one-in-5-new-yorkers-suffer-from-depression-mental-illness.

Christiana Henry Final Research Blog post

Accessible but not really: New York City Subway System

 

  In New York, you will never not see just one mode of transportation. There are various types of transportation ranging from buses to trains to taxi’s and many more. Not all forms of these transportation, especially trains are accessible for people with disabilities. My map portrays in two different time periods (1973 and 2019), the level of accessibility of different train stops that disabled people can access. It is important to understand that without these accessible stops, it limits that disabled person quality of life. Also it’s vital to make sure that there is equality among everyone, because we are all human beings with feelings and emotions. Although the Americans with disabilities act was passed in 1990, ensuring equal access, to this day people with disabilities have trouble accessing the trains, which prevents their quality of life, indicating that there should be more accessible train stations.


The Americans with disabilities act was passed in 1990 and ensured equal access to people with disabilities. The ADATA.org website explains what the ADA entails. It states ” The Americans with disabilities act became law in 1990. The ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in jobs, schools and transportation and places that are open to the general public.” This quote is explaining when this act was passed and how people with disabilities are protected by it. I agree with the government’s decision to pass this law/act because without it, disabled people would still be treated unfairly. The ADA ensured equal access to people with disabilities. According to the  U.S transportation website, the U.S department of transportation (D.O.T) hosted the Access and Mobility for all summit to raise awareness and make efforts to improve accessibility to trains for people with disabilities. Secretary of transportation Elaine L. Chao states ” A notice of funding opportunity for FTA’s 2020 Mobility for all pilot program, seeks to improve mobility options and access to community services for older adults, individuals with disabilities, and low incomes.” This quote is explaining how actions will be taken by the department of transportation to improve the quality of life for individuals with disabilities, by funding specific programs to fit their needs. Elaine Chao’s plan to increase mobility for disabled people is useful because it sheds light on the issue of funding and providing multiple ways of access to trains for people with disabilities. Also according to the department of transportation they state ” the government’s wide efforts to improve access and mobility for people with disabilities, can provide more efficient, affordable, and accessible vehicles and mobility services such as transit and ridesharing.” Therefore this quote is explaining how the government is finding ways to ensure that people who are disabled have equal access to transportation. I agree with the government’s efforts to make a change to accessibility because disabled people deserve a chance to be part of modern society.


Today people with disabilities have trouble accessing the trains, which prevents their quality of life. Christensen Keith Access to urban transportation system for individuals with disabilities explains how community integration is important for individuals with disabilities. He states ” It is essential that the built environment be supportive and provide access to the community resources, including housing, employment, transportation, and community service for all individuals.” This quote shows that when we make efforts to make a change in the environment that we live in, it benefits all individuals. As a result it is important to integrate individuals with disabilities, and individuals that are able to access transportation, to create a greater quality of life, and prevent social isolation.


There should be more accessible train stations for disabled people. MTA workers devise a plan for the years 2020 through 2024 to have more accessible train stations.  Martinez Jose MTA plan calls for more accessible subway stations, explains how the MTA is going to fix train stations that are not accessible for disabled people. He states ” The MTA pledge Monday to fast-track subway access for people with disabilities, by making 66 more stations easier to navigate as part of a new $51billion, five year spending plan”. This quote shows that the money that the MTA has is going towards creating a better way of traveling for people who have disabilities, and cannot access the subway stations at certain stops. I agree with the MTA’s plan to create more accessible stations, and I feel that it is important because everyone especially those who cannot walk, deserve a chance to get from place to place without limits and/or restrictions.


In conclusion it has become common today to dismiss the idea that trains are becoming less accessible for disabled individuals. The individuals that think in such ways often agree that lack of access to trains for disabled people have become more frequent, but suggest that efforts to improving their transportation conditions would simply be too costly and there are other alternatives to riding the trains that wouldn’t be so time consuming. My evidence clearly shows that the government has programs in place right now, and in the future, that will help fund the cost of mobility and accessibility for disabled individuals. When you look at a map of the New York City subway routes, that are accessible, you can see that in a lot of areas there are huge gaps in between train stops. Think about how easily it is for people who are able to walk , and who are able to hop on the subway. The service and conditions in the train cars may not always be the best but it isn’t a struggle for them to get on and off the trains, and get to where they need to go. Now think about someone who is disabled, and struggles to move around or get from place to place. Imagine what it is like for them to get on and off the train. Doesn’t everyone deserve a chance to go where they want without any issues?


  1. “Quality Of Life.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/quality of life.
  2. “What Is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)?” ADA National Network, 10 Dec. 2019, https://adata.org/learn-about-ada.
  3. “US Department of Transportation.” US Department of Transportation, https://www.transportation.gov/.
  4.  Christensen, Keith M. Access to Urban Transportation System for Individuals with Disabilities. Vol. 41, 2017.
  5. “Integrate.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/integrate.
  6. Martinez, Jose. “MTA Plan Calls for More Accessible Subway Stations.” The City, 17 Sept. 2019, https://thecity.nyc/2019/09/mta-rolls-out-accessibility-plans-for-more-subway-stations.html.

Study Guide Blog Post By Christiana Henry, Kiana, Michael

Chapter 2: The Art of Summarizing- Chapter Two is the focus of summarizing. Summaries should be shaped with your own twist, but also should address the main idea in a clear way. When summarizing what they say, use action verbs to explain what is going on. Be sure to be judgement free because your summary is based on someone else’s perspective.

Example: If you are writing a response to the essay by Zinczenko, you should see that the topic written about is a different type of essay summary that addresses the issue and solution, but in your perspective and judgement free.

In his article Don’t blame the eater, David Zinczenko blames the fast-food industry for fueling today’s so-called obesity epidemic, not only failing to provide adequate warning labels on it’s high-calorie foods, but also by filling the nutritional void in children’s lives left by their overtaxed working parents. With many parents working long hours and unable to supervise what their children eat, Zinczenko claims, children today are easily victimized by the low cost calorie-laden foods that fast-food chains are all too eager to supply”.

  1. Templates for introducing summaries and quotations:
  • X advocates…….
  • They celebrate the fact that…….

2. Verbs for introducing summaries and quotations:

Verbs for making a claim: argue, believe, claim, suggest, insist, emphasize

Verbs for expressing agreement: agree, support, admire, celebrate the fact that, endorse

Verbs for questioning or disagreeing: complain, complicate, question, reject, contradict

Verbs for making recommendations: demand, implore, urge, warn advocate, recommend

 

Chapter 3: The Art of Quoting- Chapter three is the Art of Quoting. Quoting exact words is the best way to launch an effective argument. When quoting you should put it in quote sandwich form. Be careful with quoting because you don’t want to quote it in the wrong way, and loose the reader.

Example: To frame a quotation, you need to insert it into a quote sandwich. The introduction and claim is the top slice of the bread, the quote is the middle, and the explanation is the bottom of the bread. The follow up statement should explain why you consider the quotation to be important and whether or not you agree with what is being said.

Tannen is alarmed by the culture of attack that she describes it would be more accurate to use language that reflects that alarm. Deborah Tannen a prominent linguistics professor, complains that academia is too combative. Rather than really listening to others, Tannen insists, academics habitually try to prove one another wrong. As Tannen herself puts it, “we  are all driven by our ideological assumptions that intellectual inquiry is a metaphorical battle, that the best way to demonstrate intellectual prowess is to criticize, find fault, and attack.” In short, Tannen objects that academic communication tends to be a competition for supremacy in which loftier values like truth and consensus get lost. Tannen’s observations ring true to me because I have often felt that the academic pieces I read for class are negative and focus on proving another theorist wrong rather than stating a truth.

 1.Templates for introducing quotations:

  •  X states……..
  • According to X……..
  • In X’s view……..

2. Templates for explaining quotations:

  • In other words X believes……….
  • In making this comment, X urges us to……
  • X’s point is that………..
  • X is corroborating………