Beauty Product: The Diversity of Beauticians

      Since the year of 1950, beauty salons had populated rapidly due to grandness in women lives. Some may not notice, but many women has been involved with salons, African Americans to be exact, where there will be no diversity of beauticians. Not a lot of people will think this matters, however, this should be looked upon on because each women has the right to receive the same treatment as others. Race shouldn’t matter and hair texture shouldn’t either. Although all beauticians requires certification to own a salon, this indicates that we must have limitations of salons with beauticians who are the same race located in the same area to build a diversity. Hence, women should be able to feel comfortable while getting their hair done.

It is known for those women whose interested in cosmetology and wanting to own a salon that an cosmetology license is required. According to the beauty courses category blog it is needed to attain a license if you are indeed providing services to clients. If you decide otherwise then it’s not necessarily required. With employees it’s a different story. It states employees must be provided “… certification or licensing…that will carry out services to the clientele.” (Do I Need a Cosmetology License to Open a Salon?; 2013, Evergreen Beauty College). In other words, they will also need certification. Now I do agree that each hairdressers should have some certification of their work, however, I understand that it can be difficult for some individuals to get one. Some people aren’t able to attend cosmetology school because the cost is too pricey. There will be programs they’ll suggest for to enroll, the rooms, and textbooks you have to purchase. Another reason they are unable to attend could be they may have many responsibilities in their personal lives that they don’t have the time to do what they want. As a result, it will be overwhelming for one person to handle these tasks. Thus, if interested in the cosmetology business it is recommended to get a license.

In certain areas, there should be limited beauty salons located in the same area with the same ethnic group of hairdressers. For instance, in the Bronx there are mutual of salons owned by Latinos located near one another. On 170 Street, from Grand Concourse to Clay Avenue, there are at least four beauty salons. The video shown below shows how closely they are altogether. The Bronx is knowing of having many Latino residents. According to Zaire Cortes, she states that “54.6 percent of Bronx residents are Latino and most live in neighborhoods that are key to the development of housing and infrastructure.”(A New Bronx?; 2019, Showcasing the Best of the Community and Ethnic Media). Because much of the community are Latino residents it’s understandable why most salons are owned by them, however, it does not excuse them for not being diverse. Few investors prefer to have just a family business. That’s a great idea, although other individuals from different ethnic groups should have the opportunity to prove their skills. It’s possible very few women feels uncomfortable to obtain services from only Latinos; not because they dislike them, but because they are treated differently due to their hair texture. This can lead the salon into losing money as these women will find services somewhere else. Therefore, there should be limitations of an all Latino salons locating closely to each other.

These beauty salons needs to be culturally diverse, not only to themselves but to our community. The importance of representation is to show within the neighborhood how connected we are together. African American’s hair is one of the underrated hair there is. Not every stylist can handle our kinky, curly, textured hair. That’s why the importance of different hairstylists should be concerned to many. Black women are discriminated by their hair because it’s not as easy to simply straighten it as a style. Thompson states that “…15% of traditional stylists turns away clients who have textured hair”. ( This App Wants to Save Black Women from Stylists Ruining their Hair; 2017, Fast Company). The amount of disrespect our women are gaining is disgusting and heartbreaking. People are so cruel. Additionally, this has been happening to us for years now. We are charged more for having “challenging” hair. Do you know how upsetting it is for a black woman to be discriminated due to the texture of hair? The instant feeling we consume when we can’t achieve is the feeling of giving up. It’s exhausting to constantly be overlooked by the beauty industry, so our only two options are to wear protective hairstyles  (wigs, braids, dreadlocks, etc) or wash our own hair. Honestly, the only people who understands our hair textures is ourselves which is why majority of us does that anyway. The more we do our own hair, the more we save our money. On the Upper East Side of Manhattan, every black woman knows the most populated of hair braiding salons are located on 125th Street. As soon you’re walking along the sidewalk you will see many beautiful African American women sitting outside handing out card information of their business. In short, the community needs a diverse of hairdressers to provide services for all women with different textures of hair.

Nevertheless, many of Latino stylists will probably suggest otherwise and argue that a diversity isn’t needed because they are able to do all types of hair. The map I created shows the amount of salons on the street, but on different avenues up the block from me. When I was a freshman I attended a salon near to the one I used to go to as a child for the first time with my mom. The original price was $15 for a wash and set yet my mom had to pay $25 because my hair was so thick and I “needed” to clip my ends. After I got out the dryer, one of the beauticians told me she would do me next after she was done with a customer. Little did I know she lied and did her friend next. Thank god my mom was there to say something and got someone else to finish my hair. Now I do my own hair so I won’t have to go through that again. To conclude, the community needs to do a better job of treating others which is why we need to be culturally diverse so all of us can work with one another.

The Real Killer: Legalization of drugs would only bring more death to the United States (Esssay #4)

Melachi Jackson
English 110 [1867]
Krystyna Michael

The Real Killer: Legalization of drugs would only bring more death to the United States


The map is showing you how many lives were taken away due to overdosing on drugs. On the map, it is showing how places that have certain drugs legalized. It becomes a gateway to people using it more and more until they used too much of it and die. Skeptics argue that drug abuse stems from people abusing the drug and not how powerful the drug is. In actuality having such powerful drugs legalized can cause many people to die. If we don’t illegalize drugs then the United States will continue to lose too many people every day.

In “Drug Use Rankings Show Big Surprises And Even Bigger Problems” author Nicole Fisher explains how the states with large populations are having more drug-related deaths the others because they have a high drug-dealing problem. “ South Dakota and Wyoming are tied for the most DEA arrests per capita in recent years, followed by Mississippi and Missouri. It is guessed that state laws pertaining to drug monitoring, as well as a number of synthetic drug and trafficking ring busts, are the culprit of the high rankings.” These states have drugs legalized and this causes people to sell and traffic drugs since it has been legalized there. This explains why West Virginia as a much higher drug death rate than West Virginia. On my map, it shows how the western side of Virginia is darker red which means there is more deaths than the Eastside.

In “Drug Overdose Deaths in the United States, 1999-2017” the authors wanted to explain how dangerous drugs really are. They inform the reader just how many people lost their life due to drugs. “In 2017, there were 70,237 drug overdose deaths in the United States”. People die almost every day of natural causes but these deaths can be avoided. This goes to show the problem has not gotten better. My map was all the deaths rates that had taken place in 2014. The number has increased tremendously over 3 years. Furthermore, the issues continuously grow and more and more people die due to drugs. “The age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths increased from 6.1 per 100,000 standard population in 1999 to 21.7 in 2017.” Not just adolescents are dying as well. Teenagers are obtaining drugs without having to need identification every single day. In all the United States is facing a crisis that is harming both the youth and the adults.

Drug smuggling has to originate somewhere and it is mainly bringing brought in by people in the state of Colorado. “Authorities say growers are using loopholes in Colorado’s legal cannabis system to produce marijuana destined for illegal export, tempted by the high prices that Colorado’s high-grade marijuana commands on the black market” Colorado is the main place people smuggle drugs because of how legal it is. This relates to the map at the start of the essay because it shows how colorado is fueling the states around it to raise their drug death. This just relates back to teenagers and how they are getting drugs. The drug dealers are getting drugs and selling them to kids. The drug rate in Colorado is much higher than it should be because of how legal it is.

Drugs related deaths are increasing and becoming more of an issue that needs to be addressed. Many states have drugs illegalized but as time goes by these drugs would be legalized and more and more people will die due to them. It will not just affect the adult but teenagers will be at risk.

Fisher, Nicole. “Drug Use Rankings Show Big Surprises And Even Bigger Problems.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 1 June 2018,

Hedegaard, Holly, Margaret Warner, and Arialdi M. Miniño. “Drug overdose deaths in the United States, 1999–2015.” (2017).

Warner, Margaret. “Products – Health E Stats – Trends in Drug-Poisoning Deaths: United States, 1999–2012.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 6 Nov. 2015,

Hughes, Trevor. “When Smuggling Colo. Pot, Not Even the Sky’s the Limit.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 17 May 2016,

Homelessness Effects

Carla Hernandez
Prof Krystyna
English 110
Working Thesis:
Although the large  majority of street homeless New Yorkers are people living with mental illness or other severe health problems. Homelessness have a higher rate of serious mental illness and addiction Disorder. Homeless can contribute to mental illness when these symptoms become so severe that the person cannot function.
I will be mapping about homelessness epidemic in the Bronx, Manhattan and Queens. Also Their effect in our community and what our community should do to help them stop being in the street and get so addicted to drugs.

The effect of homelessness on society can be quite costly, not only in terms of tax dollars spent but on the strain it puts on social agencies, Individual and families. Homeless people spend more time in jail or prison than other population. On the other side part of it has a result of violating laws that specifically target homeless people. Homeless has an effect on both the individual and society. Society has to pick up the cost for homeless individual to get very basic service such as treatment for illness, places to sleep in and food to eat. Furthermore The effects on homelessness are huge on their physical and emotional health. Homelessness men and women don’t have the money get the medical care they need so they suffer from colds. Homeless people are more likely to get into drugs and alcohol and getting HIV. Also they don’t get enough vitamins to be healthy or sleep. Another thing is that homeless people are more likely to get raped and get into a physical violence because they don’t have houses to protect them. I would like to learn more about homelessness effect

The coalition for the Homeless provides up to date information on New York City’s homelessness population. In recent years. Homelessness in New York City has reached the highest levels since the great depression of the 1930s. Furthermore compared to homelessness families, homeless single adults have much higher rates of serious mental illness, addiction disorders and other several health problems. Each night thousands of unsheltered homeless people sleep on New York city street, in the subway system, and in other public spaces. There is no accurate measurement of New York City’s unsheltered homeless population. This year’s count was conducted in 24 hospital emergency rooms and waiting areas in the Bronx, Queens and Manhattan.
When we think about what causes homelessness, we often think about addiction, mental illness, domestic violence, Job loss, and disabilities. Those are all accurate demographic characteristics of the homeless population. While some people work through day labor companies or have service industry jobs, unemployment is more common. And an estimated Forty percent of the homeless population is disabled. Also homeless people are more likely to be victims of violent crimes than to commit those crimes themselves. People without housing are vulnerable and lack the safety that a home provides while it is true that homeless people often have lengthy arrest records, they’re most often arrested for non- violent crimes associated with not having a home, like public urination, or trespassing charges for camping on someone else’s land.
Conflict over the use of public and community spaces increases when there are large numbers of people without access to their own private space. These conflict can bring to the surface deeply rooted issues linked to negative perceptions about members of society who are poor, vulnerable or marginalized. The Bronx contains five of the ten communities citywide that experience the highest incidences of family homelessness. These communities are university heights, south Bronx, and Tremont. Homelessness is a growing problem that negatively impact the nation’s economic competitiveness. According to the U.S department of housing homelessness in the United States increased for the first time in seven years, and increases in the numbers of unsheltered individuals in the Fifty largest cities.

In conclusion

Studies show that the largest majority of street homeless New Yorkers are people living with mental illness or other Severed health problems. The mental health of homeless population is significantly worse than the general population, with the prevalence of mental disorders up to four times higher in the former. In my Opinion homelessness need to stop, we need to help those people by letting know their right here in the United States, They are not alone but sometimes what happens in situations like this is that those people prefer to be in the street than in a shelter because they know that in the street they have more possibility of getting money for their drugs and don’t work but in a shelter they will get help to stop dealing drugs and they also get the opportunity to be in a program for work.





  • Loren cassady, the effect of homelessness,june26,2018
  • stephanie Watson,how homeless work, april28,16
  • Kristin harris, the cause and effect of homeless,march 1, 2017







Final essay

Haddy Ceesay

Professor Michael

Eng. 110

November 19th, 2019


Adolescence; (Identity versus role of confusion) and (Peers versus parent)

 Later woman and african man talking with caucasian friends outdoor in the summer in the city

Most of us believe that Adolescence is stressful to get through and a difficult journey, but sometimes it depends on the way we handle it. The identity versus role of confusion stage is a turning point in human development during which adolescent from roughly the age of 12 to 20 years, try to understand and invent who they are by testing out different version of themselves in different social situations. The article, ‘Oranges’ by Gray Soto explains, Adolescence is the beginning of a challenging and transitional period. These changes occur both in the mind and physical appearance. being a teenager is stressful because you get through a difficult journey. However, at that stage many teenagers begin to experience things that were prohibited to them. Although after knowing what it’s all about, most of them stop because they know what is good and bad. At that stage they might want to protect themselves against dangerous things. Although teenager do adopt one either peers or parents, most parent authoritarian are rigid and punitive, and value unquestioning obedience from teens. Most peers are authoritative to them because peers are firm, set a clear limit, reason with their peers and explain things to them.


In addition, most teens in the united states especially junior and high school students frog relationship by taking some responsibilities on their own. The need to develop new social relationships and an increasing sense of responsibility and independence. That is to say, to grow up friendly relationships and improve their duties and be free. The cognitive ability that attained during adolescence may also give the risk to new feelings of egocentrism. Ultimately, then, my goal is to demonstrate that the new thinking teenagers achieve leads to the belief that they know everything and know better than anyone else. Again, they are independent in a way teens tries to solves their problem without clear thinking to the outcome. I observe group 0f teens from school or going to school in the subway. Behaving impulsively meaning acting like a kid playing and running in the subway, also some be pushing their colleague towards the platform. I believe teens do such because they think of the positive side rather than also thinking the negative side might happen accidentally. In additional, teens sometimes act as an adult by sharing important advice within them self in the train car by using reason and analyzing their taught in a correct manner and which others can benefit from.


“Adolescence Developing and Identity” by C. Stangor and J. Walinga, which say that, the first time a teen boy picks up a girl and walk her out to a drugstore, and ask her what candy she wants by showing some responsible. At some point he decides without deep thinking for the outcome. “After the girl chooses a chocolate he can’t afford, the boy says, I fingered a nickel in my pocket, and when she lifted a chocolate that cost a dime, I didn’t say anything. I took the nickel from my pocket, then an orange, and set them quietly on the counter”. In essence, the girl wants an expensive candy which the young boy can’t pay. He takes out the little amount of money he got and one off the fruits he was having, without saying anything stand in front of the cashier. In order to see how this relates to adolescent development, the psychology text explains, “Adolescents often seem to act impulsively rather than thoughtfully”. In essence, teenagers normally act without thinking thought it. Most adolescence do act impulsive meaning acting without thinking. Similarly, to the “Oranges” text by just telling the girl to choose what she wants without imagine what the cost might be.


Furthermore, the teenager rationalized ways to deal with his issue of paying for the candy. The speaker says, “when I looked up, the lady’s eyes met mine, and held them, knowing very well what it was all about.” That is to say, while he was standing wanted to tell the lady what he wants, the lady already knew and decide to help them before he even says something. As the psychology text states, during adolescence the child continues to grow physically, cognitively and emotionally”. That’s is to say, at this stage many changes occur like thinking, understand, reasoning and even feelings do develop. At the stage of adolescence teenagers begin to think rationally meaning using reason or good sense to do what they want. As the “Oranges” text demonstrates, he thinks deeper to find out the best strategy he could use, even though before he speaks up to the cashier helped him while the young adult was still thinking.

Moreover, he achieved trust from the girl as a result he feels egocentrism. At the end of the story, the says, “I peeled my orange that was so bright against the gray of December that, from some distance, someone might have thought I was making a fire in my hands”. In other words, when they got out of the store the boy removes the skin of a fruit it was so light in a dark day. At some point people could think that he was having light in my hands. To connect this to adolescence, the psychology text states, “the new cognitive abilities that are attained during adolescence may also give risk to new feelings of egocentrism”. In other words, the new thinking teenagers achieve lead to the belief that they know everything and knows better than anyone else. At this point in time of adulthood most of them think hypothesized that is using knowledge and fact to predict what might happen. This is because at some point the young man has his own believe that someone might think that he has light on his hands in a dark place instead of his orange. He was thinking everyone was concentrating on him.

In the final analysis, the boy in “Oranges” act in different ways one was acting before thinking as a puberty while the other one was thinking before acting as an adult hood. I believe it is important because at this stage you use the one that’s work for them. However, they are between puberty and adulthood therefore they use both in a way that they need it Some people might say that the boy in” Oranges” is behaving as an adult complete. Because if he was behaving as a teenager he would not how to walk a girl at his age. Moreover, would not have any idea on how to solve his problems in the store. However, this is not a strong claim because it depends on the type of teenager he is. Over all it is clear that the young boy act like an adolescence because in every situation he acts differently.

Lastly, I went to a school in Manhattan name path way to graduation, I can call it a high school because they conduct the GED program. The student’s age is between 12 to 21 and my research is based on that category. Most of them find it hard to figure out who they are, and who they want to be. Adolescent do end up confuse because of the different orientation they got from people, which might lead to role of confusion. Again when they ask parent instead parent answering the question they will be directing the way without any explanation of why they should do that. The example given to me by the group of teens was their parents be like our great grandparent follow this way of becoming a teacher or any other area depend on the family, from grandparent to us to you guys and any comment you might thing of adding they will say you are too small to change the family history. Instead of given them chance to try what they want to be. Although adolescent feels pressure to identify what to do with their life. teens be declining reliance on adult for information with a shift toward using the peer group as a source of social judgements. The important attachments of adolescents move increasingly away from parent and increasingly toward peers. As a result, parent influence diminishes at this stage, teens group conclude by saying the things they want to know is given to them by their peers.











Work cited

 Stanford C. and J Walinga. Introduction to Psychology, Victoria BC, BCcampus.2014. 

Soto, Gary.”Oranges” PoetryMagazine,


Childhood Obesity

Diana Marfo

Krystyna Michael

English 110-210B

10 December 2019

Childhood Obesity

Some might say that everyone is dying to be thin. I’m not sure how true that popular saying is because I always observe some level of obesity during my daily outings. The most troubling of my observation is when I see obese children. This is particularly concerning being that ailment in childhood can be carried into adulthood if it is not taken care of. Some illnesses linked to childhood obesity are type 11 diabetes, cardiac issues, respiratory issues, cholesterol and death due to coronary failure. These sicknesses in obese children stem from junk food, poor quality of foods and excessive eating. Childhood obesity is a problematic in low income areas affordability of quality   food. Although junk food is less expensive and people can afford it, it is not good to consume. Therefore, the price of healthy food should be reduced so that low- income people can have access to healthier food choices.

According to the National Center for health statistics the number of obese children ranges from ages 6-19 have tripled to 16% over twelve years. The article also points out that one in six children suffers obesity, which has impacted on child physical and emotional health and children who are overweight have greater tendency to become obese throughout their adulthood. According to the research there are many ways a child can be obese example poor diet, lack of physical activities, stress, marketing, lunch options at school and boredom are all factors contributing to childhood obesity. Some might say that the Bronx is the most extensive area in the United States. However, it is not the only place with children that are obese.

Although the city is having a lot of bodegas and fast food restaurants all over the place people are still not thinking about their health but focusing on unhealthy foods. The map reflects on how in every one supermarket there are six bodegas around.

Also, it shows how obesity in general happens in low income areas.  Also, this map is helpful because being obese leads to health problem and increase the chance of being diagnose with diabetes and it also proves that fast food is the main factor of obesity Additionally it shows how it is easier to buy fast food than prepare it. In my research what I found out was that this also contributes to childhood obesity, the presence of supermarkets and convenience stores like bodegas has a higher rate of contribution to childhood obesity which also leads to diabetes. The objects in this is to determine the awareness of food access through bodegas. That is to say that some people think is the easiest and convenient way for people to purchase food and have access to affordable and unhealthy foods products.








Physician- A person who is legally qualified, Obesity – the condition of being overweight

Bariatric- relating to treatments of obesity. This article ranges from 2004- 2019. As the time period becomes more presents. The articles show how childhood obesity rate has increase drastically and how more children are having to deal with Adult like illness i.e. type 2 diabetes and heart problems early on in life. This article provides ways and solutions into the world of how doctors, parents and schools can do to help not only decrease the rate but prevent it as well.






Lorna E. Thorpe, Deborah G. List, Terry Marx, Linda May, Steven DHelgeson, Thomas R. Frieden “Childhood Obesity in New York City Elementary School Students” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 9, 2004, pp. 1496–1500.


Alonso grocery store 20019, University Avenue Bronx. Web. Nov. 10, 2019. Castillo grocery store is one of the busiest and recognizable stores in my neighborhood that primarily sells food, they offer nonperishable foods that are packaged in bottles and boxes, which increase awareness of food access. In other words, it is easy and convenient for people to purchase food and having access to affordable and nutritious foods, which also contributes to the prevention of obesity.



Web. Nov 9, 2019

Condition of being overweight Bariatric- relating to treatments of obesity

This article ranges from 2004- 2019. As the time period becomes more presents. The articles show how childhood obesity rate has increase drastically and how more children are having to deal with Adult like illness i.e. type 2 diabetes and heart problems early on in life. This article provides ways and solutions into the world of how doctors, parents and schools can do to help not only decrease the rate but prevent it as well.

Castillo Supermarket (local bodega) is one of the busiest and recognizable stores in my neighborhood that primarily also sells food products which has a variety of food, beverages and household product which are organized into section and shelves and also household cleaners. In other words, all this store sells foods product that contributes to childhood obesity because some of the parents are so busy with their work so they don’t have time to cook for their kids and all they provide for their children is fast food and the kids get use to junk food.

Terry Mara MD, Lorna E. Thorpe, Linda May and Thomas R. The prognosis of obesity in Department of

Health and Mental hygiene web April 27, 2004.


Web Network Times Vole 158 Aug 16 2009.  The American journal of public” say kids are fat” In other words poor diet in children has contributed too poorer eating of fruits and vegetables and have a higher intake of saturated fats. That is to say kids don’t focused on healthy foods rather likes eating unhealthy products, but how to prevent obese in children is parents needs to prepare nutritious and healthy food, improve dietary intake, and to reduce television which can also control overweight in children. According to the article obesity has a higher rate in Hispanic children usually in boys. That is to say that mostly obese kids are mainly associated with Spanish children.

Work Cited


Resnick, David. “Fast-food, fat profits: Obesity in America.  “Trans-fat ban and human freedom” American Journal of bioethics 2010, 19 Nov.2010.



Robinson, TN. “Behavioral treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity.” Int J Obes. 1999




Robinson, TN.” Reducing children’s television viewing to prevent obesity.” JAMA 1999.


research eng 110


Abortion Rates: Why Abortion Rates Are So Low in NYC Even Though They Are Legal and Accessible.

Destiny L. Mayo

Professor Michael 

ENG 110- 216B

December 10th, 2019

Abortion clinics are medical facilities that provide abortion services. For years, anti abortion groups have fought to get these clinics closed down. Thankfully, NYC has remained one of the abortion capitals of America, making abortion accessible. Although abortion is legal and these medical resources are accessible to women, abortion rates in NYC surprisingly remain low compared to states like Alabama, who struggle to keep abortion legal.

Being as though abortion is legal in NYC, one must wonder why the abortion rates have dropped to its lowest ever. According to “US Abortion Rate is at its Lowest, But Restrictiv e Laws Aren’t the Likely Cause”, it states says that “the 13.5 abortions per 1,000 women ages 15-44 is the lowest since the U.S. Supreme Court’s Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion nationwide in 1973”. This means that abortion rates have dropped drastically from the years 1973 to now, in 2019. One idea for this decrease in abortion rates is the fact that pregnancy rates have decreased. The article states “The study notes that fertility rates declined in almost all states from 2014 to 2017, and it is unlikely that the decline in abortion was due to an increase in unintended births.” This shows that abortion rates have decreased due to the decrease in fertility rates and not due to a decrease of women having less unintended pregnancies. Another article titled “Some US women are taking reproductive matters into their own hands: They’re ordering abortion pills by mail”  proposes the idea that not all abortions aren’t always done at clinics, causing the abortion rates to appear lower than they actually are. The article states “In Aid Access’ first year of operation, 21,000 U.S. women reached out to the online organization launched in March 2018 that offers abortion pills internationally. Requests came from all over the country”. This shows that a huge portion of women in the US are taking a more private approach with abortion by ordering pills online instead of obtaining abortion pills from its primary source, the abortion clinic.

Aside from having legal abortion, abortion clinics are also very accessible in NYC. The article “Abortion in New York” written by Pat Anow states, “Seventy percent of those are performed in the city, where there are 34 major clinics.” This shows that many abortions are done in NYC because of its easy accessibility to multiple abortion clinics around the city. The article goes on to state “Unlike most other places, “there is hospital-based abortion and family planning, that students gain access to as they go through medical training. In most of the rest of the country, that clinical care is not provided in hospitals where students receive most of their training.” ( This shows that even the doctors themselves have accessibility to abortion. This also shows that the medical field is supportive of abortion rights and try to offer its accessibility to whoever, whenever they can, including to those learning about it unlike other countries who are bias and abortion rates in NYC still are continuing to decrease.

Unlike the US, abortion in Alabama remains illegal. According to the article “Everything you need to know about the abortion ban news” written by Marisa Lati and Deanna Paul states, “Alabama’s bill explicitly states that women are exempt from criminal and civil liability. Instead, the law targets doctors, who can be prosecuted for performing an abortion, a felony punishable by up to 99 years imprisonment.” This means that though women in Alabama will not be prosecuted for abortion, the doctor who performs the practice will get up to 99 years of imprisonment, unlike NYC where doctors are encouraged and trained to perform this practice. The authors go on to say “New York City is likely to remain one of the easiest places in the country to have an abortion. Much of this may be a reflection of the prevailing attitudes here, as demonstrated in the positions of public officials (and candidates).” The article explains how NYC has remained one of the few places to have easy accessibility to abortion, and future public officials determine whether or not things will remain this way. Included in the article is a video clip that further explains the new law in Alabama, banning abortion. It also goes more into depth about how public officials aren’t the only reason for the change in laws. There’s a lot of advocated in Alabama supporting the new law. This is causing women to spend their money traveling to states like NYC, where abortion is legal.

Nevertheless, those who are anti abortion might argue that having an abortion is the equivalent of murdering a child, and women who get this practice done deserve to be penalized. Though many others and I may argue that women deserve the right to abortion and should never be penalized or imprisoned for doing so. Factors such as rape and women growing ill due to a pregnancy, should always be taken into consideration. My map shows how abortions are offered all over NYC, making it way more accessible. I myself have had many family members who have gotten abortions for various reasons. I have always believed that all women should have the right to abortion, due to them being the one who has to carry the child. No women should feel forced to birth a child whom she feels she is not ready to raise. Abortion should be made legal world wide.


Work Cited:

Arnow, Pat. “Abortion in New York City.” Gotham Gazette, 28 Aug. 2006,

Lawrence, Elizabeth. “Some US Women Are Taking Reproductive Matters into Their Own Hands: They’re Ordering Abortion Pills by Mail.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 27 June 2019,

Marisa Iati, Deanna Paul. “Everything You Need to Know about the Abortion Ban News.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 17 May 2019,

Stanglin, Doug. “US Abortion Rate Is at Its Lowest, but Restrictive Laws Aren’t the Likely Cause, Study Says.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 19 Sept. 2019,

How Those Who Protect Us Hurt Us

There is substantial evidence to suggest that policing is harder on black men for everything. So then, how do you police the police? The police is trusted by all of society to protect and serve its people. Yet, police officers themselves report insufficient accountability for misconduct. Police brutality is a racial issue because it more often negatively impacts people of color. Although, the opposition may argue that police have the right to defend themselves, the NYPD is supposed to protect all New Yorkers equally. There have been a lot of incidents where people of color have been racially profiled and mistreated. About 27% of all police officers acknowledge a flaw in the system and describe the actions taken upon police conduct as not nearly enough. This is evident in the Eric Garner case, where the grand jury returned a verdict of no indictment in 2014. However, the case has elicited numerous mass protests as well as a different view of the police department which has had the public questioning its effectiveness and whether or not it serves its purpose. In my map I will be pinning places in which police brutality incidents have occurred throughout the 5 boroughs of New York City.   

Prior to the Eric Garner case, stop and frisk was issued to reduce gun violence, although it made no significant difference. In fact, the number of young black males stopped in 2011 due to stop and frisk exceeded the actual number of young black males. Moreover, 90% of them were innocent. This could indicate an ingrained prejudice in the criminal justice system and terminating it would require a thorough evaluation of it. 

The method used by Officer Daniel Pantaleo after Eric Garner,  the victim in question resisted arrest was the chokehold. He did this without any illicit motive, performing an aggressive arrest which was not needed. Force is to be used under exceptional circumstances. Officers are trained to use the least amount of force. Why use violence on Eric Garner, after the man continuously simply asked the officers to leave him alone? They were supposedly going to arrest him because he was accused of selling loose cigarettes, yet there is no indication in the video of the incident between the police officers and the accused man that he was doing so. What grounds of suspicion were the officers acting on? Most importantly, why after the man repeatedly said he could not breathe, did the officers continue to shove him into the ground compressing his airway? This is a classic example of police brutality and an abuse of power. Backup was coming, as in the video sirens could be heard in the background. The man was not threatening the officers, neither did he have a weapon or did they suspect that he did. 

It is apparent how cruel the system is in its treatment of civilians . The dehumanization of subjected groups occurs through an ingrained racism in legislation made by those in power. The group of people which work to protect the well-being of all citizens actually demean them and instill fear in communities which should be turning to them for help. They are looked at and treated like animals. The importance of injustice within the criminal justice system is evident in the duration of its existence and its prevalence in society today. This type of injustice has not only happened to black people. Numerous groups have been targeted by the white supremacist society due to their differences and their threats to the system’s structure. The strange thing is that almost half of the country does not hear about these killings either because of the police patching it up or something even worse, the media does not report it. Something that we are “supposed” to believe we look at the media to stay informed of what happens in our country but even that is corrupted in today’s time. The problem is not just police officers alone; the problem is industrialized racism. Nonetheless, the use of force exists and is abused to the extent in which it passes racial, economic, and social borders. It intermingles between the three and the severity of it or how frequent it may be varies upon the civilian’s position, as well as the position of the police officer they may encounter. In Whibey’s research, statistical evidence shows use of force distributed amongst several different racial groups, concluding that African American and Latino males are more likely to receive harsher treatment: 

The federal Justice Department releases statistics on this and related issues.. It found that in 2015, among the 53.5 million U.S. residents aged 16 or older who had any contact with police, 985,300 of them — 1.8 percent — experienced threats or use of force.  Law enforcement officials were more likely to threaten or use force on black people and Hispanics than white people, according to an October 2018 report. “When police initiated the contact, blacks (5.2 percent) and Hispanics (5.1 percent) were more likely to experience the threat or use of physical force than whites (2.4 percent), and males (4.4 percent) were more likely to experience the threat or use of physical force than females (1.8 percent).” Of those who experienced a threat or use of force, 84 percent considered it to be excessive. (Wihbey)

Although 1.8  percent may seem a relatively small number, this number has statistical meaning and signifies an issue in the way the system operates. Eighty-four percent of those experienced a threat or use of force considered it to be excessive, depicting the severity which most officers handle situations with. The job of the police should be to make them feel safer rather than make them afraid of the same people who work to serve them and their safety. This indicates that a change in regulations needs to be made, where different tactics are enforced so that all officers know how to act in situations with minorities so that they may not feel threatened. 

As a police officer, there are several tactics taught to one in training to subdue an unwilling person, commencing with the voice to establish power. A chokehold should have immediately been removed from question because of the danger it presents to the individual; “More specifically, the Chokehold represents how American institutions and “social practices”treat all African American men as would-be criminals to be “contained” by the state … The Chokehold produces a world in which all Black men are presumptively viewed as threatening; none of them gets a pass; not even children” (Butler). According to Butler’s book, the chokehold becomes a metaphor that elicits fear within the black community. The goal of a police officer should always be to complete a successful arrest, without hurting the individual’s life. Other alternatives to strengthen and reinforce the system’s reliability, would be to hold more officers accountable for their actions. There should be more action taken when an officer or any person working for law enforcement is accused of anything or takes part in any alleged crime. It is imperative to realize that although extremely difficult to imagine a crooked system, it is highly evident that it does exist, and with individuals who repeatedly threaten innocent civilians, whether it be based on race, gender, or any other prejudicial circumstances, it is best to strip them of their titles or more fatalities will occur. 

Courts are often perceived as an important venue to hold police accountable for fatal use of force with criminal prosecutions. However, as the events surrounding the death of Eric Garner showed, prosecutions of officers accused of committing crimes involved in their duties are extremely rare. But low rates of prosecution and conviction do not apply when applied to other offenses committed by officers, as this section outlines. We set out to explore why prosecutions, and convictions, are so rare. (Congress) 

This study found that jurors usually tend to empathize with the police officers themselves rather than the victims of an alleged crime. This is because they consider that these officers take on life-threatening cases and are exposed to crime, violence, and danger daily. They deem these decisions as last minute life-or-death, in which an officer under immense pressure may not make the morally right, or best, decision. In the case of Pantaleo, this could have also affected the grand jury’s indictment. Pantaleo was a serving officer for seven years at the time of the incident, which may have altered the jury’s decision. They could have interpreted the length of his service as important to the justice as far more important than one occurence where he may have felt under pressure.  Yet, the public most certainly understood the dramatic effects of the abusive force used by Pantaleo. 

While police use of deadly force is a rare occurrence, its impact can be felt throughout the community and undermines public confidence in the police. Aside from the ethical and moral ramifications of taking another’s life, or leaving them perhaps permanently disabled, a police officer also faces the prospect of being held criminally liable if deadly force was improperly employed. People in today’s litigious society will frequently challenge the officer’s decision to use deadly force in a civil court as well. For all of these reasons, it is absolutely imperative that officers thoroughly understand their responsibilities, rights, and limitations regarding the use of deadly force. (Congress)

Once again, the education of all officers is imperative so that they may understand the complexity of the use of force. This will strengthen the system as well as the public’s belief in its system. With understanding comes practice, and practice yields better results. Once officers understand the complexity of the use of force, they will try to minimize it as much as possible and will always second-guess their actions, even in conflicting cases where they may be emotionally disturbed. Understanding consequences of impeding another individual’s right to live under absurd circumstances will also restrict officers from being overly aggressive, if they know they will be held accountable for not using the suggested methods. 

The case of Mr. Eric Garner manifests the reality of the criminal justice system we possess now. It raises numerous questions, all which must be thoroughly examined in order to extract a conclusion that would be effective and non-biased. Even so, the use of force can immediately be diminished, by training more officers efficiently and implementing new regulations that all officers must follow. The grand jury assigned to cases regarding violations of another individual’s rights by a police officer should not be overlooked. Officers should be placed on immediate suspension after tragedies like Garner’s occur. This way, the families would not feel as if the system is not aiding them or investigating and taking into careful consideration every iota to a case like this. Different solutions should be taught to all officers who face difficult predicaments with subjects who are unwilling to cooperate. These tactics should involve the least amount of force, to avoid any casual tragedies.

The picture above, illustrating Eric Garner’s last words “I can’t breathe” symbolize how the system as a whole places its citizens in a chokehold. The discrimination and excessive use of force projected unto civilians is enough to suffocate a nation as a whole. It exposes the blemishes in the criminal justice system, along with the video which simply enforces that. Every day, bystanders are subjected to witness the tragic effects of police brutality and a system which cannot seem to be undone. 


Butler, P. (2018). Chokehold: policing Black men. New York: New Press

Butler’s book relates the method used by Daniel Pantaleo, the chokehold, as a metaphor that signifies the daily struggles of an American individual in our society. He explains how it instills fear in minority groups and subjects them to irreversible guilt in the eyes of the system. This is a perfect example of how police brutality undertakes several lens in any individual’s life. 


Congress, N. J. (2003, October 3). Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence Between Police and Citizens. Retrieved from

The task force suggests that police departments clearly and publicly state values as well as proper procedures that should be followed in any given situation.. In addition, it indicates that a public knowledge of the enforcement of these regulations will minimize violence between police officers and individuals. They predict this will ensure a feeling of safety and security within the public. In my opinion, rules and regulations in regards to the use of force should definitely be made as specific and clear as possible to avoid more cases that involve police brutality.

Wihbey, J. (2018, December 21). Excessive or reasonable force by police? Research on law enforcement and racial conflict. Retrieved from

The article retrieved touches thoroughly upon the background of the use of force and its effects on groups of people in society. It reveals how anxious the people are and untrusting they have become towards the justice system. With belief that little to nothing is being done to help individuals of a group, the justice system’s reliability decreases and weakens at a plummeting rate. This is exactly the data that is needed to inform all people of the injustice that is occurring and suggest alternatives to the police system’s policies. 

Social Media


My map is showing the location of the Bronx. I choose a map of the Bronx because people use their phones to be on social media. People do not care if they are in a specific place such as an office, school, street, etc to use social media. They do not pay attention to what is around them because they just think that social media is everything. I chose places like office, school or street because even when some people are working in an office they do not care if they are working they just check their phones to see what is going on on their social media. Some of them get in trouble for that. They think that they can hide what they are doing. But, they use their phones so much that they do know noticed when someone is watching them. Also, my map highlights accidents to demonstrate that people are having accidents because they do not pay attention to the lights when they are texting while they are driving. This map is a good option for people who overuse social media because they can see some of the big problems that people can have for overuse social media. Although social media is part of our lives, social media affects the reality of our lives, so the number of hours that we are on social media should be moderate.


Social media is part of our lives because we use social media all the time and we want to share everything that we do. However, we do not take the time to ponder that even though social media is part of our lives, social media has a negative effect on us. In her article, Elite Daily, Moose A maintains that “There’s no doubt that social media is a significant part of our daily lives, whether it’s someone uploading photos from his or her graduation or tweeting about an awesome new car, social media implicitly causes us to compare ourselves to others” (Moose). This demonstrates that even though we use social media as something that we need every day, social media can have a negative impact on us because the person who was comparing herself with others has self-confidence decrease. It is true that social media is part of our lives that’s why we use it constantly, but also we are always comparing ourselves with people that we see on social media because we think that they look better or they have something better than us and then we see ourselves less than them. Comparing ourselves with others is not going to help us to grow up mentally because then we are going to think that we are not capable of doing things as others, but also at the same time, we need to think that we are different and we should not compare ourselves with others. Comparing ourselves with others shows that we are not sure of who we are as a person.  


Social media is affecting the reality of our lives because almost everything on social media is not real, people use to lie or there is no real information. According to the article In the three months prior to the 2016 US presidential election, false news stories about the two candidates have shared a total of 37.6 million times on Facebook.” (Are social networking sites good for our society 2) This shows that social media has a lot of false information and it is affecting us because when we see any information on social media we use to believe it, and we share the same false information. Some people think that social media is enough for them that’s why they prefer to know about what is going on through social media, but they do not think that what they see on social media can be fake news. They just prefer to know what is going on on social media than what is going on in their real lives, they do not think that social media messes with the perception of reality.   


We should control the hours that we spend on social media because it is how we are going to manner our time and the things that we do.

student girl does homework, she took her phone







This shows a girl sitting on a chair with her notebook next to her. This image gives me the idea that she is studying or doing her homework. However, she has a phone in her hands. She is using social media while she is doing her work. The image shows how the girl prefers being on social media than do what she is supposed to do. This image is related to this topic because the girl is not limiting herself to being on social media distracts her to do her job from school. She does pay attention to what she needs to do. Also, we can see the image of the girl in another way. Maybe her parents do not know that she is spending her time on social media when she is supposed to do school’ work. And, maybe the girl is using social media as something negative.  I add another image because it is also related to my topic.

This phrase means that we need to beware of what we are going to post on our social media because depends on what we post it will have a negative or positive effect. What we post on social media it will be reflected in our future because if we are on posting negative things all the time on social media is how other people are going to see us. We should all use social media for something productive. If we use social media for a good purpose we are going to see the difference because almost everybody shares the same thing over and over. How we demonstrate ourselves to others is how they are going to see us because as the phrase says social media affects our personal lives too. This means that sometimes social media influences our lives, so we need to be careful of what we do on social media because it is going to be reflected in ourselves as negative or positive actions.


In conclusion, overusing social media is not good for anyone because it will affect us in many ways. On the other hand, I agree with many people that social media is good because we all need social media to be connected with our family, share what we want or even express what we feel. But on the other hand, I still insist that we all should limit the hours that we use social media because social media is not everything. We do not depend on what is on social media. Therefore, my map is showing that the Bronx is one of the big parts of the world where people have their phones on their hands all the time to check any minute their social media. Even me, I use my phone all the time. I remember one time when I was about to get in trouble because of being on social media. I was working so I took out my phone and I went to the back to see who was texting me. But, the thing that I did not know was that one of the managers comes from the other side. He told me why I am using my phone? I told him I just want to see the time. Thank God he is a good manager and he believed me. After that, I never use my phone when I’M working because I do not want to lose my job or something. Also, I promised myself not to do it again because instead of being on my phone to check my social media I can use that time to learn something new about my job or help the customers who always need help. As something that I already had the experience, we all need to pay extra attention to how we are using our social media. We all should think it is something for our benefit or not. Overall, using social media excessively is not going to be productive for us.    





Final essay


Bronx School lunches: Time to feed the Future a healthy food

  Public School lunch meals served to children in low income areas like the South Bronx district 15th need to be changed for fresh meals. We all admire that food is life and it plays a major role in the function of our body system, and in order to maintain our body healthy we need to consume wholesome fresh food. But, we tend to assume that Public school meals served in the Bronx is wholesome, while in reality school meals is unwholesome meals because it caused harm on children’s health. This point out that children from low-income and racial and ethnic minority are likely the most classified obese in the U.S. because they don’t have access to adequate fresh meals except to the artificial foods that are made available to them in schools. By analyzing this issue, we observe that the majority of minority children today are highly affected by obesity compared to the white people’s children who are less affected. Which make me think that all schools should provide a healthier presentable meals to all children because whatever the schools provide them as lunch will turn to influence their lifelong eating habits and their academic achievement. Although organic food is expensive, its positive benefit on children’s development make it necessary to include it in school lunches at a low income districts.

Organic food tends to cost more than conventional foods. Hirsh reported that “ Another reason organic food costs more is because the production process is more expensive. More labor is required to maintain organic farms than conventional farms, since organic agricultural practices are often more complicated (and take longer) than using pesticides to manage crops, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)” ( Hirsh, Sophie). This evidence explain that organic food is more expensive than conventional foods because the ingredients used to process the production cost a lot and it demands a lot of time and strength. Also, it  request more workers in the field to help take care of the organic farms rather than the conventional farms. This evidence resonate to my claim because organic does cost a lot of money because it made naturally without the use of synthetic or chemical pesticides or fertilizers. Even though some people think that buying organic food is a waste of money or it is not better than conventional food, they are wrong because it is better to spend money on good food rather than spend the money in hospital. While, on the other hand I understand that not everybody can afford to buy organic food because it consumes a lot of money and can make people run out of budget. I also understand the fact that school can’t provide organic food every day for lunch but anyhow the government can reinforces the system by incorporating organic food to public school. Although organic food’s price is high, it is recommended as the healthiest food to intake into the body in order to balance our metabolism and keep them in good healthy position. 

Although organic food cost a lot of money, there are others ways to improve the school lunch system without doubt. According to Thomas, “ An Elite Chef Is Trying to Engineera Better School Lunch.” 

This image illustrated the new technique coined by “Dan Giusti” to better the schools lunches system. As you can see in the picture Dan Giusti, trying to resolve school lunch problem in the Bronx by visiting school cafeteria to help transform scratch food to a wholesome. Mr. Giusti collaborated with many schools to project a better way of making school lunch great and more appealing for kids even though kids might not adjust to the new habits and taste rather way. He devoted to determine the next steps by improving public school meals system in the community and worldwide by showing them how to set up their own kitchen rooms, handle food safely by balancing budget and with an excellent cooking skills. So, he thought about the idea of putting professional chef in all public school cafeteria to improve prefab school meals to a healthy cooking meals and raise awareness on improving school meals by incorporating cooking meals in all public school cafeteria in the Bronx. I truly support his actions, about making school lunches more presentable and appealing because it is the main key way to guarantee a standard health for us all. Doing this will help better the Nutrition service system because it will help enhance the well-being of the kids.

Children at low income schools need access to fresh and healthy food for lunches because it will help them learn better when they’re well nourished. Oder talks about Stephen Ritz, author of the Power of a plant who says “We believe that the art and science of growing vegetables align to common core and content area instruction that has helped the students, helped the schools and has helped the communities as evidenced by test scores, eating habits and school performance. We grow vegetables, but my vegetables grow students and healthy communities” ( Spaen). From this evidence, Stephen Ritz have changed the life of the children through growing vegetables as indoor curriculum to reinforce the living conditions of all poor children from low income residents. He teaches his students how to plant seeds and how those seeds turn to produce healthy foods which therefore help increase students academic performance in test scores, learning potential and attendance. I really support the hard work Stephen Ritz put to change the South Bronx by creating a green classroom to better the community and the lunches served to the children at the school cafeteria.Teaching kids how to plant seeds and the benefit of healthy foods  will help them grow into healthy adults and good eating habits. I found this program very useful because it empowered children who never speak out, to raise their voice and advocate for themselves. Children have gained a lot of experience throughout the process about how to grow and cook which is pretty amazing because all this helps adopting a new culture to American.

 Moreover, school can prevent obesity by implementing healthy food to motivate kids to get adapt on making good food choices. According to HHS Public Access, “All school districts that participate in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) school meal programs (i.e., National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program) are required to have a local school wellness policy that addresses health goals for nutrition education and promotion, PA, and nutrition standards for all foods available on school campuses”( Nihiser, Allison, Caitlin Merlo, and Sarah Lee).This evidence explain that every school needs to have a policy on food, incorporated physical activity and educate kids of the importance of healthy food so that it would help limit the rate of obesity. Although it might take time for kids to get adapt to it, it will be better to introduce it to them at an early age so that they feel confident to make a good healthy choice. This idea of incorporating physical activity, offering more fresh vegetables to children will promote an active environment for kids to get moving and help reduce the rate of obesity at low income residents in the South Bronx.

 School representative and principal can also help prevent obesity by making a good  meals decision for kids because according to Rubin, “ The video portrait the difference between the school lunches in the U.S. compared to other country”. This video describes how bad America’s school meals look because the lunches served others country such as Chile, Greece, South Korea, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, Ukraine, and France are more presentable and contain less calories compared to the meals served in the U.S. America should do more to better school menus because given kids an excess amount of calories will affect their overall health and their learning potential.

Overall, the importance of improving school lunches to a healthy foods is to prevent chronic diseases such as obesity from rising. Kids need to eat a variety of fresh food to maintain a healthier growth and development. Also, to keep children on track on their future goals. Some people might go against the fact that school should not provide organic foods to all public school because the government will raise taxes on food items, while others suggest that school lunches should be healthy so that kids could have energy to do work and be able to make a good healthy choice as eating habits. The duties of school is to train kids on how to make the right food choices. 


Work Cited:

1-Hirsh, Sophie. “Why Is Organic Food More Expensive Than Conventional Food?” Green Matters, Green Matters, 31 July 2019,

3- Spaen, Brian. “Teacher From The Bronx Builds A Green Classroom To Improve School Performance.” Green Matters. Green Matters, 14 Sept. 2017. Web. 4 Dec. 2019.

4- Nihiser, Allison, Caitlin Merlo, and Sarah Lee. “Preventing Obesity through Schools.” The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013. Web. 4 Dec. 2019.

5-  YouTube video

The Rubin Report “These Photos Show Just How Bad School Lunches Really Are in the U.S.” Online video clip. YouTube, Feb 23, 2015. Web. 15 November, 2019.